Better Logging with Nextjs App Directory

July 23, 2023 (1y ago)

Hey folks, I'd like to share my (somewhat painful) experience with adding CorrelationId to Nextjs App Directory.

I hope this helps you avoid some of the pitfalls I ran into!

Why do we need CorrelationId/Logging in Nextjs? 🤷‍♀️

Unless your app is purely static, you likely are taking advantage of Nextjs' server-side abilities. This is especially true with the new RSC (React Server Components) model Nextjs 13.x has adopted. Whether your app acts as a public entry point or as a microservice, tracking the work the Nextjs server is doing is essential.

What is a Correlation Id 🤔?

CorrelationId is a unique identifier that is used to track a request through the system. Simply put, correlationId is pretty useful for things like logging.

You can pass it between services and track the flow of the request lifecycle. If you need more on this, you can always ask chatGPT.

CorrelationIds typically look something like this in a request header:

    "x-correlation-id": "4594ae38-5348-4714-9cb5-b74f66541acb"

Ok so, how do we add CorrelationId to Nextjs?

Glad you asked! Luckily (and unluckily?), there are many options.

Step 1: Pick a good logger 🪵

Since my Nextjs app (this website) is deployed via Docker with on the Nodejs runtime, I picked pino. I recommend picking a Logger that suits your deployment environment. Platforms like Vercel's Edge Runtime and Cloudflare's Workers wouldn't support this logger.

I added my logger as a global hook under lib/logger.ts.

import pinoLogger, { Logger } from 'pino'
let logger: Logger
export const getLogger = () => {
  if (!logger) {
    const deploymentEnv = process.env.NODE_ENV || 'development'
    logger = pinoLogger({
      level: deploymentEnv === 'production' ? 'info' : 'debug',
  return logger
view source

The next step is where things get a bit tricky. How you implement logging and correlationId depends on your deployment environment.

Step 2: Add CorrelationIds to your app 📝

My app is serverless

In this case, I recommend taking advantage of Nextjs' Middleware.

Keep in mind, Middleware doesn't support the Nodejs runtime (hopefully this changes soon).

You'll need to generate a random UUID via something compatible, like the Web Api's crypto module.

Sudo code:

import { NextResponse } from 'next/server'
import type { NextRequest } from 'next/server'
// This function can be marked `async` if using `await` inside
export function middleware(request: NextRequest) {
  request.headers.set('x-correlation-id', crypto.randomUUID())

You can also configure at which routes to generate this header via a Matcher.

My app is a container/custom server

If you're using output: 'standalone' as your configuration, you can use the same approach as above. Nextjs standalone provides a basic Nodejs server. With standalone, however, you cannot edit the server code; It's bundled with your app under .next/standalone/server.js.

My Nextjs apps are deployed as Docker containers, so my strategy was to add a custom server.

Here's some sample code:

const logger = getLogger()
async function main() {
  const nextApp = next({ dev, dir, hostname, port })
  const handle = nextApp.getRequestHandler()
  await nextApp.prepare()
  const server = createServer((req, res) => {
    req.headers[X_CORRELATION_ID] = crypto.randomUUID(){
      url: req.url,
      method: req.method,
      correlationId: req.headers[X_CORRELATION_ID],
      msg: 'inbound request',
    const parsedUrl = parse(req.url ?? '', true)
    handle(req, res, parsedUrl)
  server.listen(port, hostname){
    msg: 'next server ready',
    url: `http://${hostname}:${port}`,
view source

As you can see, adding a correlationId to the request header is pretty straightforward. However, the benefits of a custom server include access to the Nodejs runtime and flexibility in request handling.

At Xealth, we even use the custom server to add OpenTelemetry for distributed tracing in Kubernetes.

This is crucial for tracking the flow of requests through our microservices.

Step 3: The Hard Part? Getting the CorrelationId and Logger 📡

In the Nextjs App Dir, coupling frontend code with backend code may lead to some confusion. Typically, in the backend world, you'd have some cls service that would provide a logger and correlationId for the request lifecycle.

A great example of this is Nestjs CLS.

In the Nextjs App Dir, however, things are little more... ambiguous.

Use a global hook

Don't take hook purely in the React sense. I mean a global hook in the server sense.

Remember the getLogger function we created earlier? We can use this to get a logger anywhere in our Nextjs app directory (even in pages).

If you really want, you can even use `var` to make the logger truly global. Not sure if I recommend this, though.

Additionally, Nextjs provides an easy way to get the request headers on the server via next/headers()

So what does this look like in practice? On my website, I let users sign in and leave comments. Let's take this simple database insert operation via a Nextjs Server Action as an example:

import { headers as nextHeaders } from 'next/headers'
import { getCorrelationId, getLogger } from 'lib/logger'
'use server'
export async function saveGuestbookEntry(formData: FormData) {
  const correlationId = getCorrelationId(nextHeaders())
  const logger = getLogger().child({ correlationId })
  const comment = formData.get('entry')?.toString(){ comment }, 'Saving guestbook entry')
  const session = await getServerSession(getAuthOptions(logger))
  const email = session?.user?.email
  if (!email || !comment) {
    logger.warn('Missing email or comment')
  const entry = await db().transaction(async (trx) => {
view source

Let's break this down. getCorrelationId and getLogger are both global functions that can be used anywhere in the Nextjs app directory. pino provides a child function that allows you to add additional context to the logger. In this case, we're adding the correlationId to the logger to persist the request lifecycle.

We will cover the Auth logging in another post (coming soon 😏).

getCorrelationId looks like this:

export const getCorrelationId = (headers: Headers) => {
  let correlationId = headers.get('x-correlation-id')
  if (!correlationId) {
    correlationId = crypto.randomUUID() // 👈 for dev development only
  return correlationId
view source

Our logs should look something like this after npm run dev | pino-pretty:

[20:35:38.850] INFO (16363): Saving guestbook entry
    correlationId: "18a573fa-ecad-4085-b34d-129f43cb9cc1"
    comment: "Never gonna give you up, Never gonna let you down"
[20:35:38.850] DEBUG (16363): adapter_getSessionAndUser
    correlationId: "18a573fa-ecad-4085-b34d-129f43cb9cc1"
[20:35:38.857] INFO (16363): Saved guestbook entry
    correlationId: "18a573fa-ecad-4085-b34d-129f43cb9cc1"

You can of course use these functions in your page.tsx server components:

export default async function GuestbookPage() {
  const correlationId = getCorrelationId(nextHeaders())
  const logger = getLogger().child({ correlationId })'fetching guestbook entries')
  const [session, entries] = await Promise.all([
    await dbQuery({
      limit: 20,
  return (...)
view source

Step 4: Profit 💰

#1 Reddit Article

Now that you have a logger and a correlationId, you can use it to track the flow of requests through your Nextjs app.

This doesn't mean you get to spam stdout with logs, though. Remember to log meaningfully!

In all seriousness, I hope this helps you in some shape or form. I'll be updating this page as I learn more. You can also find the source code used on my GitHub.

Copyright © 2023 Michael Angelo Rivera